Skip to main content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.
UMW Libraries
Simpson Library | Special Collections

FSEM 100S1: The Amusement Park: Annotated Bibliography and Issue Reflection

The Annotated Bibliography and Issue Reflection

Instructions: Watch the video, and scroll down the page to view all the content that's in the video.


The assignment

Here is an excerpt from the assignment description:

The Annotated Bibliography and Issue Reflection is the culminating assignment of this review and will require students to utilize resources to support a stance on the issue.  The final product will be a list of 6+ sources that help the student take a stand in support of or against zoological and marine life parks.  Students may include popular sources, but just include at least 3 scholarly or primary sources.  Personal communication sources are also acceptable.  In addition to the annotated bibliography, students will prepare a 1-2 page summary of the process they used to complete this assignment.  All citations in the Annotated Bibliography must reflect correct APA reference page formatting. 

The assignment will be graded according to this rubric:

Annotated Bibliography & Issue Reflection  

15 Points  


Needs Development 

Annotated Bibliography Sources

Bibliography includes 6+ sources (with at least 3 being scholarly or primary sources) that support or oppose the topic 


5-4 points 

Less than 6 sources OR fewer than 3 scholarly or primary sources 

Sources are not relevant to the topic 

0-3 points 

APA Citations 

Appropriate and correct APA format is used throughout the annotated bibliography and issue reflection 

5-4 points 

Multiple errors and/or APA format is not appropriately used throughout the assignment 

0-3 points 


Student clearly articulates the research and writing process used for this assignment.  Examples of resources used are given as well as an in-depth analysis of the writing, editing, and revision process.   

3 points 

Student’s reflection is vague and is missing key components of the reflections.  Specific examples are limited and/or not shared. 

0-2 points 

On-Time Submission 

Student submits the report on time and with all components complete 

2 points 

Student submits the report late and/or components are missing. 

0-1 point 

Annotated bibliographies

What is an annotated bibliography?

Let's break it down:

  • bibliography is a list of sources, such as books or articles.
  • "Annotated" means "with notes"

Put them together, and an annotated bibliography is a list of sources with a note written about each source.

Here's a guide that tells you how to make annotated bibliographies in APA style, from Columbia College in Canada:

Types of sources

When you did your Park History Paper, you learned about the difference between popular and scholarly sources. Here's a reminder:

Popular Scholarly
Written for the average person to read Written by scholars, for scholars to read


This distinction matters! For this assignment, you’re being asked to find a minimum of six sources that are either scholarly or primary.

You already know what “scholarly” means. What does “primary” mean?

Primary and secondary are new concepts.


  • Primary source: Firsthand information. Usually used as evidence to establish facts.
  • Secondary source: Secondhand information. Usually used as analysis to help explain a topic.


Because a source can be any combination of popular/scholarly or primary/secondary, you may encounter any of four possible combinations:



Written for the average person to read


Written by scholars, for scholars to read


Firsthand information

  • Journal articles (with original data or original theories)
  • Statistical data


Secondhand information

Opinion pieces or blog posts by people who have no firsthand knowledge and are not experts.

Watch out! Analysis by random people isn't as valuable as analysis by experts.

  • Journal articles (that analyze other people’s data or theories)
  • Scholarly books (including e-books)


The assignment description says this:

Students may include popular sources, but just include at least 3 scholarly or primary sources.

Look at the chart. A minimum of three sources must be either scholarly (the right column) or primary (the top row). Sources in the lower left corner do not count toward your minimum.

How to find things for this assignment

How do you find things? It depends on what kind of thing you're looking for.

Here are some lists of types of sources and how to find them. These lists are an expanded version of the chart you saw in October, when you were working on the Park History Paper.


Scholarly sources

Type of source How to find
Journal articles Quest or Google Scholar.
Scholarly books

In Quest. You can limit your results to books on the search results page. Look on the left under "Refine My Results" and "Resource Type." (You might have to click "More options" to expand the list.)

Here are some subject terms that you can use to find books (including e-books) in Quest:

  • Animal rights
  • Animal welfare
  • Aquariums
  • Conservation biology
  • Zoo animals
  • Zoo visitors
  • Zoos
  • Zoos - Moral and ethical aspects
  • Wildlife conservation

You can also find print books by browsing in these areas of the stacks:

  • Animal rights and animal welfare: HV4701 - HV4900
  • Zoos: QL70 - QL77.5
Statistics Professional organizations, such as the Association of Zoos and Aquariums. The US federal government provides some statistics as well -- try doing a Google search and add the term site:gov.


Popular sources

Everything on this list is both popular and primary, so any of these things would count toward your minimum of three.

Type of source How to find
Interviews Google or Quest – just add the word “interview” to your search. Note that interviews can be in text format or video format.
Personal communications Send messages to people you’d like to speak with, such as directors of zoos or animal rights organizations. You can cite their replies.
News articles Quest or Google News or Bing News. Look for articles that offer original eyewitness reporting, instead of just summaries or opinions.
Photos or videos

Google Images or Bing Images, Google Videos or Bing Videos.

Also, try doing a Quest search and limiting it by Resource Type (on the left side of the search results screen). Look for the options “Audio Visual” and “Images.” You may have to click “More options.”

Memoirs and autobiographies In Quest. Most of the books you find in Quest will be secondary sources (by people without firsthand knowledge), but you might spot some memoirs or autobiographies by people who work at zoos or aquariums.