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Simpson Library | Special Collections

Citing Sources: Chicago / Turabian

A guide to the major citation styles

A Note about Chicago/Turabian Citations

Chicago has two systems of citation:

  • The Notes & Bibliography system uses notes (footnotes, endnotes, or both) and a bibliography. It is used in history, literature, and the arts.
  • The Author-Date system uses parenthetical references in the text and a bibliography. It is used in the sciences and social sciences.

At UMW, Notes & Bibliography is the more popular of the two systems, so some instructors may use "Chicago style" or "Chicago/Turabian" as shorthand for "Chicago Notes-Bibliography System." Consult your instructor as to which version of Chicago is preferred for your class.

Best Bets for Chicago/Turabian style

More Chicago Summaries and Examples